The focus means that the development acceleration efforts in Papua will integrate the cultural and ecological approaches, as well as the inclusive economy and human security into further comprehensive implementation.
Following Law No. 21 of 2001 on Special Autonomy, improving the welfare development in Papua requires plans or actions in which any revisions to the law will include at least six frameworks. There is also the 2020-2024 National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN) with the proposed policies and strategies to accelerate the development in Papua.
The Six Frameworks
As Law No. 21 of 2001 will expire in 2012, there are two scenarios for a new Bill of this regulation. The first is the continuation of the Special Autonomy (otsus) still with the 2% otsus fund of the total General Purpose Fund. The second is a revision to the law under the 2014 presidential mandate regarding the special autonomy status for Papua.
Particularly for the second scenario, there are at least six (6) main frameworks in the process of revising the law, namely authority; institutional; strategic development; human resources; politics, law and human rights; and finance.
The authority framework talks about the laws that will regulate the authority between the central government and local government, as well as with the special autonomy law. Whereas, since Papua occupies such a vast land, the institutional framework is about strengthening special administrative expansion and the empowerment of district governments.
Strategic development deals more about the road map to 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and how to provide the Integrated Basic Service. As for human resources, the framework discusses the policy of accessibility to education and health sectors, as well as management of ASN that has the native Papua context.
The framework of politics, law, and human rights consists of the issues of the representation of indigenous Papua in every sector, good governance, and the reinforcement of human rights. As for finance framework, it deals with the otsus fund and also the financial management in Papua.
The Five Policies
Kementrian PPN/Bappenas (National Development Planning Agency) has proposed a new paradigm to the development acceleration in Papua, especially concerning the new framework for the draft of the 2020-2024 Presidential Instruction. Once sectoral, it is inherently more holistic that includes the following five policies:
- Development of excellent human resources, including the betterment in education and health sectors to improve the life quality of indigenous Papua people.
- Good governance.
- Improvement of the environment quality.
- Disaster resilience based on the existing local wisdom.
- Empowering the local economy and creating business opportunities. The purpose is to attract more investors and to magnify the revenues from downstream industry basis. In this case, the government will provide help for the Papuan people to increase their industrial production based on flagship commodity of each region.
The Six Strategies
Furthermore, Kementrian PPN/Bappenas has emphasized on six steps in accelerating development in Papua and West Papua.
- The first is accelerating the human resource development and basic services to all parts of Papua, including the dormitory education, excellent school pattern and vocation, as well as basic social services down up to the village level.
- The second is mapping the economic potentials to create new growth centers based on the seven indigenous cultural or customary territories (wilayah adat) in Papua and West The establishment of seven Economic Development Area (KPE) is one of the initial breakthroughs.
- The third is the acceleration of infrastructure development and internal connectivity. The aims are to connect to more isolated areas, to provide basic services, and the acceleration of economic centers in strategical areas. Special Economic Area (KEK) of Sorong, Industrial Area of Teluk Bintuni, Tourism Area of Raja Ampat, and air bridge are some of the examples.
- The fourth is managing and strengthening the special autonomy status (e.g. the management of Otsus Fund), empowering the District (kecamatan), improving the synergy of regional development planning, and developing a Papua-contextual ASN (State Civil Apparatus) policy and management.
- A fifth is an ecological approach that respects the environment and climate change in Papua. It means to create a sustainable development design together with other development partners.
- The last is reinforcing the coordination during the planning, implementing, and controlling levels of development in Papua. The partial and sectoral steps taken by the Ministry/Institution need to be in synergy with the local government.
The Minister of PPN/Bappenas also has mentioned the affirmative, accelerating, and asymmetric approaches that should be integrated and elaborated on the levels of policy-making, regulation, and budget. The related primary development objective in mind is to address the specific needs of Papua people.
Therefore, the government has the intention to carry out a public consultation with the various component of Papua community. Again, the purpose is to obtain positive or even constructive inputs (feedback) from the very first hand. It also aligns the approaches to welfare, security, and sustainable development with the context in Papua.