Indonesia is a diverse country. The people come from distinct backgrounds such as heterogeneous races, cultures, languages, and religions. Hence, the country is susceptible to conflict.
Conflict Early Warning and Response System is an attempt to predict and prevent the possibility of conflict arising between two parties with different perspectives or class clashes. The recent CEWERS case in Papua and West Papua, Indonesia, is the pros and cons of regional expansion.
The conflict begins with the Papua Special Autonomy Law no.2 of 2021. The discussion about Papua’s regional expansion to be three provinces such as South Papua, Central Papua, and Pegunungan Tengah Province of Papua encountered pros and cons among its citizens.
The Recent Cases in Papua and West Papua
There are some figures who reject the expansion plan. A member of Papua’s peace community, Cahyo Pamungkas, stated that the latest policy of Papua’s regional expansion will encourage widespread Papuan distrust of the central government and make it even more difficult for the country to end the armed conflict in Papua.
Usman Hamid, the Director of Amnesty International Indonesia, added the regional expansion in Papua should involve Papuan People’s Assembly as the cultural representation of the Papuan Indigenous People. (Retrieved from Tempo.co, 2022). The authorities should consider the native people’s objection to the destruction of natural resources in the land of Papua.
On the other hand, Pdt Alberth Yoku, the Jayapura Regency religious leader and chairman of the Jayapura Regency Religious Communication Forum (FKUB), stated that the expansion aims to help prosper the people. He also asked Papuan to be more open-minded to the new policy.
Lukas Enembe and Klemen Tinal, the central and local government, claimed that expansion is the strategy to build and develop other areas. Therefore, a city and district like Jayapura is not the only place experiencing growth and development (iNewsPapua.id, 2022).
Conflict early warning early response can be analyzed using 5W1H. It helps to acquire deeper information about the conflict and whether the early warning of the occurrence of the possible conflict is needed.
Second, it is necessary to know about the conflict phase, whether it is anticipated conflict or it has reached the tension phase that could lead to violence. It is also important to note the SAT (Structure, Accelerator, and Trigger) to learn more about the ongoing conflict.
The next step is the involvement of the orientation of structural figures to discuss the conflict using the existing conflict resolution theory. Also, analyze the momentum regularly to know the conflict’s progress.
The 5W1H Report
It began in early 2020 when the expansion issue started to be discussed alongside the plan to revise the Papua Special Autonomy Law that echoed to the surface. When the Special Autonomy Law is validated, the conflict begins to rise.
This difference in perception has escalated due to demonstrations carried out by groups of students and youngsters to reject the expansion.
So far, the conflict appears as an argument on social media. However, even if the conflict occurs indirectly, it has the potential to occur directly when the implementation of the expansion happens.
The phase of the conflict shows that limited violence and even mass violence are very likely to occur both before and after the expansion is carried out.
The triggering factor of this conflict is the different perspectives of its citizens. Some citizens are concerned that the plan only gives negative impacts on them, such as exploitation of natural resources, the potential to increase violence and human rights violations, and many more.
The groups that reject the expansion are the groups with political interests or pro-referendum groups, also groups of people who are concerned about the damage or negative impacts to them and their region in the future.
The debate that happens both through online or offline media referred directly to the party or group labeled as those who support or reject the expansion can lead to a violent act or physical violence.
The conflict which begins with words can lead to a much greater clash that can cause harm to the lives of others. Even those who are not involved in the conflict. (Retrieved from PAPUAinside.com, 2022)
SAT (Structure, Accelerator, Triggers)
The background differences between its people also play roles in having different perspectives. Moreover, the authority does not make the decision in accordance with the demands of the general public.
Social media became the accelerator that added fuel to the fire. Nowadays, every person can create their own story or perceive the news without considering it comes from reliable sources.
The creation of US VS THEM groups. These groups will use their beliefs to differentiate the other group as the ‘amiss’ group.
Therefore, there are some CEWERS practices to prevent the conflict in Papua and West Papua, such as the authority conducting regular meetings and listening to the different perspectives of native Papuan people’s opinions about the expansion. Second, discuss the plan of regional expansion with openness to decrease misunderstanding. Last but not least, educate ourselves in this digital era with easier access to receive information from the internet and not to take the news without further understanding.