Indonesia has abundant natural and mineral resources. This wealth requires all parties to realize the impact of mining on the environment.
The government and mining license holders must manage existing resources for the prosperity of the people.
Therefore, natural resource management must be oriented towards the preservation of natural resources or natural resource oriented.
Mine Management in Indonesia
Natural resource management that takes the impact of mining on the environment will have a consequences on achieving the law.
The Government of Indonesia issued the Law on Environmental Protection and Management to emphasize the importance of balancing natural resources.
The government establishes this law to ensure legal certainty and protect everyone’s right to a good and healthy environment to preserve the entire ecosystem.
The instrument also legitimizes policies in environmental management.
However, although the laws and regulations have provided clear guidelines on natural resource management,
There still occur the impact of mining on the environment caused by the imbalances and violations in exploiting Indonesia’s natural resources.
Impact of Mining on the Environment
Based on data, Indonesia has issued around 8,000 mining business licenses.
This area is 93.36 million hectares, about four times the size of the East Kalimantan and North Kalimantan Provinces. These licenses have resulted the impact of mining on the environment.
The mining sector’s waste greatly impacts environmental pollution, such as polluting rivers, threatening ecosystems, damaging soil structures,
And causing flooding. In addition, there are several other impacts of mining activities on the environment, namely:
1. Increased Threat of Landslides
They are judging from traditional mining techniques, where miners dig hills not in stages (trap-trap)
But dig and appear irregular excavation openings, forming straight and hanging walls, potentially increasing the threat of landslides.
2. Forest Destruction
Mining can destroy people’s sources of livelihood because agricultural land, namely forests, and lands, has been acquired by the company.
This condition happens due to the expansion of the mine, which narrows the community’s business land.
This expansion can also cause flooding because forests in the upstream area, which should be a water catchment area, have been cleared.
This condition is exacerbated by poor drainage and the destruction of downstream friends such as swamp forests.
3. Air Quality Degradation
Coal burning releases toxic compounds, including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, benzene, toluene, xylene, sulfur, arsenic, mercury, and lead.
In addition, air quality degradation is caused by the unloading and mobility of mining products and equipment in and out of the mining site.
4. Sedimentation and Degradation of Water Quality
The high content of water pollution materials is caused by coal mining activities. Polluting materials carried by surface run-off water to lower parts and enter water bodies.
The water becomes turbid, and the disposal of soil left over and increases the impact of mining on the environment.
5. Environmental Pollution Due to Waste
Mining waste is usually contaminated with sulfuric acid and iron compounds that can flow from the mining area.
Water containing these two compounds will become acidic. Acidic mining waste can cause corrosion and dissolve heavy metals, so the polluted water is toxic and can destroy aquatic life.
Government Preventive Measures
To overcome the impact of mining on the environment in the mineral and coal mining sector,
The Indonesian government has issued regulations with environmental requirements that everyone should pay attention to. Those regulations elaborate as follows:
- Exploration, whereas a stage of mining business activities, information on the social and environmental environment is require.
- Feasibility Study requires AMDAL and post-mining planning.
- Production Operations require controlling environmental impacts by the feasibility study results.
- Reclamation is an activity carry out throughout the stages of the mining business to organize, restore, and improve the quality of the environment and ecosystem so that it can function again according to its designation.
- Post-mining activities, planned, systematic, and continuous activities after the end of part or all mining business activities to restore natural environmental and social functions according to local conditions throughout the mining area.
Correlation between Environmental Quality and Energy consumption
One of the Indonesian government’s efforts to reduce the impact of mining on the environment is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Unaccommodated and unstructured energy consumption, dependence on imports, low efficiency, and pollution impede sustainable economic growth.
Therefore, there is an emerging need to analyze the flow and its effect on economic growth and energy.
Along with economic progress and development, development follows ecological problems.
There is reciprocity, especially in developing countries, in addition to impacting economic growth, which will cause environmental damage.
This environmental damage is related to the development process still concentrated in the primary sector, industrialization, with energy needs of potentially high-polluting materials.
At the same time, the technology used could be more environmentally friendly.
The Importance of Environmental Quality
The more developed a country is, the better the awareness of the importance of environmental quality should be.
However, energy use by industry and households empirically still negatively give the impact of mining on the environment.
The higher awareness of the importance of energy and its impact on the environment, it is necessary to support energy savings, namely new energy that is energy efficient and environmentally friendly.
Economic growth expects higher energy consumption and also affects environmental quality.
Moreover, fossil energy still dominates the energy sources of non-renewable energy.
The dominant use of fossil energy sources will increase carbon dioxide emissions in the air, especially from fuel oil in vehicles, industries, and power plants.
Energy consumption has a positive and significant effect on carbon dioxide emissions. Economic growth is positively related to and significantly affects environmental quality through carbon dioxide emissions.
At the same time, energy consumption is negatively correlate and significantly give the impact of mining on the environment.
Especially, the impacts of environmental quality through carbon dioxide emissions in Indonesia.
The Economic Growth and energy used from mining can affect the level of Emissions.
If all parties are consistent and obey the commands of the Constitution and laws and regulations, the impact of mining on the environment should be avoide or minimize.